«Identities and a sense of belonging: young Lithuanians and Latvians from ethnic minorities »

Lyudmila Nurse

Ссылка при цитировании


Nurse L. «Identities and a sense of belonging: young Lithuanians and Latvians from ethnic minorities » // ИНТЕР, 2016. Том. 1. № 12. C. 21-33.

Аннотация


This paper was prompted by my presentation at the Conference “25 years later: between the Soviet past and an unclear European and Eurasian future” which was organized by the Project for Migration and Security Studies on the post-Soviet space of the Central European University in Budapest (directed by Dr. Irina Molodikova).

It addresses the ways in which new nation building in Lithuania and Latvia since the 1990-s affects cultural identities of ethnic minorities in this historically culturally diverse region. Its aim is to identify from a “bottom up” perspective means through which individuals from different ethnic minorities express and negotiate their cultural, ethnic and national affiliations. It explores the ways ethnic minority people retain their own identities amidst globalization/hybridization of culture at the beginning of the 21st century and new nation-building.

Using a variety of empirical, including biographical data the paper contributes to the theoretical and policy debate on cultural diversity that is rooted in historical and geopolitical paths of Eastern Europe. This data was collected in the EU- funded project EC FP7 ENRI-East (2008-2011)1 in which ethnic minorities from Lithuania and Latvia were studied. In the study ethnic minorities along the new EU border were considered as neither being entirely diasporic or of migrant origin, but as a “quasi-diaspora” group that were mostly created not by recent migrations, but by historic border shifts.

Analysis of the biographical narratives of individuals from ethnic minorities in Lithuania and Latvia showed the complexity of ethnic, national and European identifications, and the ways individuals choose who they are in a rapidly changing cultural environment. The use of the actor-driven ethnic identification approach instead of “grouping” according to the external markers of ethnicity proved to be successful in getting individuals’ reflections upon the changing nature of cultural environment, and also in the historic narratives of association with “place”.

Biographical methods enabled the capture of dynamics of ethnic identification, biographical life strategies of the individuals, perceptions of the “other” in society, minority (ies)-majority relationship. Comparative analysis of biographical narratives of ethnic minority individuals in Lithuania and Latvia references changing language practices, surnaming convention, historic and cultural memories of the place, religious practices.

Ключевые слова


ethnic minority; Lithuania; Latvia; cultural diversity; identities; belonging; biographical strategies

Полный текст:

PDF (English)

Литература


Aarelaid-Tart A., Bennich-Björkman L. (eds.) (2012) Baltic Biographies at Historical Crossroads, London and New York: Routledge.

Aasland A, Fløtten T. (2001) Ethnicity and Social Exclusion in Estonia and Latvia. Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 53, no 7, pp. 1023–1049.

Assmuth L. (2012) Rural belongings. Baltic Russian identities in Estiniana and Latvian borderlands. Baltic Biographies at Historical Crossroads (eds. A. Aarelaid-Tart, L. Bennich-Björkman), London and New York: Routledge, pp.105–124.

Bertaux D., Thompson P., Rotkirch A. (eds.) (2004) On Living through Soviet Russia, London and New York: Routledge.

Billig M. (1995) Banal Nationalism, Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC: Sage.

Björklund F. (2006) The East European “ethnic nation” – Myth or Reality? European Journal of Political Research, no 45, pp. 93–121.

Castel R. (2013) Citizenship and Otherness: The Differential Treatment of Ethnic Minorities and France. Dangerous Others, Insecure Societies. Fear and Social Division (ed. M. Lianos), Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 13–21.

Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. UNESCO, Paris, 20 October 2005.

European Cultural Values (2007) Special Eurobarometer 278/Wave67.-TNS Opinion and Social. Report.

Giubernau M. (2013) Belonging. Solidarity and Division in Modern Societies, Cambridge: Polity.

Guidelines of National Identity and Society Integration URL: http://www.mfa.gov.lv/en/policy/society-integration/ (accessed 27.10.2016).

Hughes J. (2005) “Exit” in Deeply Divided Societies: Regimes of Discrimination in Estonia and Latvia and the Potential for Russophone Migration. JCMS: Journal of Common Market studies, no 43, pp. 739–762.

Humphrey R., Miller R., Zdravomyslova E. (eds.) (2003) Biographical Research in Eastern Europe, Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.

Johns M. (2003) “‘Do as I say, not as I do’: The European Union, Eastern Europe and minority rights”, East European Politics and Societies, no 17, pp. 682–699.

Laitin D. (1998) Identity in Formation. The Russian-speaking Populations in the Near Abroad, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Latvia (2015) Statistics in brief. Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia. URL: http://www.csb.gov.lv/sites/default/files/nr_04_latvia_2015_statistics_in_brief_15_00_en.pdf (accessed 30.01.2017).

Lianos M. (ed.) (2013) Dangerous Others, Insecure Societies. Fear and Social Division, Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.

Matulionis A., Beresnevičiutė V., Leončicas T., Marcinkevičius A., Frėjutė-Rakauskiene M., Šliavaitė K., Heinrich H-G., Alekseeva O (2011) The Russian Minority in Latvia. ENRI- EAST Research Report 6. URL: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/socsci/documents/6_The_Russian_Minority_in_Latvia.pdf (accessed 30.01.2017).

Matulionis A., Beresnevičiutė V., Leončicas T., Marcinkevičius A., Frėjutė-Rakauskiene M., Šliavaitė K., Heinrich H-G., Alekseeva O. (2011) The Russian Minority in Lithuania. ENRI- EAST Research Report 9. URL: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/socsci/documents/9_The_Russian_Minority_in_Lithuania.pdf (accessed 30.01.2017).

Mullerson R. (1993) Minorities in Eastern Europe and the Former USSR: Problems, Tendencies and Protection. The Modern Law Review Limited, no 56, p. 6.

Nurse L. (2013) Biographical approach in the Study of Identities of Ethnic Minorities in Eastern Europe. Realist Biography and European policy: An Innovative Approach to European Policy Studies (eds. A. Mrozowicki, J. D. Turk), Leuven: Leuven University Press.

Nurse L., Breen P., Shionnemann M-E., Azzopardi A., Lagree J-C., Lauritzen P. (2002) Paper “Youth Policy in Lithuania”, Council of Europe, Strasbourg.

Nurse L., Gibson A., Suranyi R. (2016) Media consumption and self-identification: Hungarian and Slovak case study. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, vol. 23, no 6, pp.705–724.

Pieterse J. N. (2007) Ethnicities and Global Multiculture. Pants for Octopus, Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Plymouth: Rowman &Littlefield Publishers Inc.

Pieterse J. N. (2015) Globalization and culture. Global Mélange, Lanham, Boulder, New York, London: Rowman & Littlefield.

Reiter H. (2012) Catching up with the West? An insider perspective from Lithuania. Baltic Biographies at Historical Crossroads (eds. A. Aarelaid-Tart, L. Bennich-Björkman), London and New York: Routledge, pp.146–162.

Shevtsov Yu. (2014) Russkaja Pribaltika [Russian Pribaltika]. Lenta.ru. 9 September. URL: http:/lenta.ru/articles/2014/09/08/pribaltika/ (accessed 10.09.2014).

Sik E. (2000) Diaspora: Tentative observations and applicability in Hungary. New Diasporas in Hungary, Russia and Ukraine (eds. I. Kiss, C. McGovern), Budapest: Open Society/COLPI, pp. 20–41.

Sik E., Tóth J. (2003) Joining an EU identity: Integration of Hungary and the Hungarians. Europeanisation, National Identities and Migration (eds. W. Spohn, A. Triandafyllidou), London: Routledge, pp. 223–244.

Statistics Lithuania. URL: http://osp.stat.gov.lt/en/statistiniu-rodikliu-analize?portletFormName=visualization&hash=96dcad8d-50ae-4150-b72f-bc644a038cde (accessed 30.01.2017).

Statistics Lithuania. URL: http://osp.stat.gov.lt/en/web/guest/informaciniai-pranesimai?articleId=223122# (accessed 30.01.2017).

UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity. Adopted by the 31st session of the General Conference of UNESCO, Paris, 2 November 2001.

Wright S. (2000) Community and Communication. The role of Language in nation state building and European integration, Clevedon, Buffalo, Toronto, Sydney: Multilingual Matters Ltd.


Ссылки

  • Ссылки не определены.